Cowpea intercropped with groundnut in a field in Malawi. Multiple cropping is a form of Ecological Intensification that is potentially highly sustainable when two or more crops are grown at the same time or in a sequence.
But this can be compensated for by determining the optimal spacing and by exploiting various forms of commensalism or mutualism, for example where the tree may be a legume, providing nitrogen for the crop plant beneath. Intercropping: interspersion of different crops on the same piece of land, such as a home garden, either at random or more commonly in alternate rows usually designed to minimise competition but maximise the potential for both crops to make use of the available nutrients, such as nitrogen supplied by a legume.
Rotations : the growing of two or more crops in sequence on the same piece of land. Agroforestry : annual herbaceous crops are grown interspersed with perennial trees or shrubs. The deeper-rooted trees can often exploit water and nutrients otherwise unavailable to the crops. The trees may also provide shade and mulch, creating a microenvironment, whilst the ground cover of crops reduces weeds and prevents erosion.
Sylvo-pasture : similar to agroforestry, but combines trees with grassland and other fodder species for livestock grazing. The mixture of shrubs, grass and crops often supports mixed livestock populations. Green manuring : the growing of legumes and other plants to fix nitrogen and then incorporate the nutrients into the soil for the following crop.multiple cropping and modern farming -- MultiCroping Farming
Commonly used green manures are Sesbania and the fern Azollawhich contains nitrogen-fixing, blue-green algae in ricefields.
Multiple cropping is highly sustainable as it relies on reducing competition and increasing mutual benefits between crops. It can provide a more efficient use of resources, such as soil nutrients, that would not otherwise be available to a single crop; support or shade a companion crop; or host a great diversity of insects, bacteria and other organisms that contribute to pest and disease control.
Nitrogen is essential for plant growth but it is often lost from the soil through unsustainable agricultural and soil management practices. Multiple cropping with nitrogen-fixing legumes can improve soil quality by replenishing the soil with N. Increased N in the soil decreases the reliance on both organic and inorganic fertilisers, reducing the amount of money and labour farmers need to spend on inputs.
Increasing the availability of N in the soil is associated with improved crop growth, which can in turn improve the livelihood of the farmer.
Further, incorporating nutrient dense crops such as legumes into the rotation can increase farming households access to nutritious foods, improving their nutrition security. Multiple cropping of compatible crops can encourage biodiversityby providing a habitat for a variety of insects and soil organisms that would not be thrive in a mono-crop environment. In turn, this may limit the number of outbreaks of pests by increasing the number and diversity of natural predator biodiversity.
However, certain insects, pests and diseases may spread easily from one crop to the next through crop residues. Growing a diverse variety of crops through multiple cropping is also thought to be critical to nutrition particularly where households grow the majority of the food they eat.
Micronutrient deficiencies, a sub-set of under nutrition, occur when the body lacks one or more micronutrients such as iron, iodine, zinc, vitamin A or folate. Multiple cropping with crops that are biofortified with micronutrients such as Vitamin A orange fleshed sweet potato can add further nutritive value per hectare.
Multiple cropping acts as an insurance against failure of crops in abnormal weather conditions. The risk of total crop failure due to uncertain monsoon is reduced if two crops of a different nature are grown simultaneously as a mixed crop. When different types of crops are grown together the chances of pest infestations are reduced or diluted. This further reduces the chances of total crop failure for farmers.
Examples of planting strategies include combining a deep-rooted crop with a shallow-rooted crop, or planting a tall crop with a shorter crop that requires partial shade. Managing rotations requires more skill than managing a single crop and harvesting may be more complicated than for mono-crop systems. Successfully implementing multiple cropping may therefore require training and education that can be difficult for smallholder farmers to receive.
Farmers may be reluctant to try out new crops that they are not used to growing or eating, or for which no defined market exists.
However, when diversifying the crops grown on a farm, it is vital to ensure that there is either market demand or household demand for the new crops introduced.Saya telah berpikir bahwa semua perusahaan pinjaman online curang sampai saya bertemu dengan perusahaan pinjaman Suzan yang meminjamkan uang tanpa membayar lebih dulu.
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Perusahaan suzan meminjamkan pinjaman tanpa jaminan sebesar juta rupiah Rp Saya sangat terkejut dan senang menerima pinjaman saya. Saya berjanji bahwa saya akan berbagi kabar baik sehingga orang bisa mendapatkan pinjaman mudah tanpa stres.
Jadi jika Anda memerlukan pinjaman, hubungi mereka melalui email: Suzaninvestment gmail. Anda juga bisa menghubungi saya: Ammisha gmail. Disusun oleh :. NIREM : TAHUN, Dalam rangka meningkatkan produksi tanaman per satuan luas per satuan waktu telah banyak upaya yang dilakukan masyarakat baik melalui intensifikasi, ektensifikasi maupun diversifikasi, dengan tujuan utama adalah untuk mencukupi kebutuhan pangan masyarakat yang semakin bertambah besar dan beragam sejalan dengan laju pertambahan jumlah penduduk yang cepat.
Kesenjangan yang terjadi antara pertambahan produksi yang rendah dan pertumbuhan penduduk yang relatif cepat mendorong upaya peningkatan produksi tanaman melalui pengelolaan tanaman yang tepat pada sebidang lahan melalui penerapan Multiple Cropping dengan input teknologi dan penggunaan sarana produksi yang memadai dengan hasil tanaman yang tinggi dan berkelanjutan. Semula ditujukan hanya untuk mencukupi kebutuhan keluarga, namun akhir-akhir ini penerapan Multiple Cropping tidak hanya ditujukan untuk keperluan rumah tangga saja dalam waktu terbatas, tapi pada petani di negara maju telah dikembangkan dengan mengaplikasikan berbagai jenis tanaman yang mampu beradaptasi pada kondisi lingkungan yang bervariasi untuk mencukupi kebutuhan pasar dengan teknologi ramah lingkungan.
Penerapan teknologi dalam Multiple Cropping untuk mencukupi kebutuhan pangan di daerah tropis belum terwujud dan masih memerlukan kajian strategis dalam pencapaiannya, tapi petani di negara-negara maju, praktek Multiple Cropping dilakukan secara cermat dengan harapan produksi yang diperoleh secara kuantitas dan kualitas dapat dipertanggungjawabkan. Beberapa studi kasus adanya praktek Multiple Cropping daerah tropis yang cukup berhasil memberikan pengharapan hidup yang memadai secara berkelanjutan, seperti pada masyarakat tani di Thailand, Filipina dan Indonesia.
Advantages, Types, and Disadvantages of Multiple Cropping System
Tanaman jagung di antara pohon Eucalyptus, Tanaman kopi di antara pohon Eucalyptus, tanaman sayuran di antara pohon lichi dan tanaman mangga. Penanaman tanaman sela tersebut hanya efektif pada saat pohon belum tertutup kanopinya.
Pemandangan di atas banyak ditemukan pada pola pertanaman di Chiang Mai, Thailand. Sementara di Indonesia, penerapan Multiple Cropping juga cukup prospektif dengan pola yang beragam seperti yang dilakukan petani di Pulau Jawa, Bali, Sumatra dan Sulawesi Selatan. Melalui input teknologi sederhana, peningkatan produksi tanaman disertai jaminan mutu yang terjaga dalam pola pertanaman ganda merupakan harapan petani masa depan yang menjanjikan dalam upaya meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat.
Disadari penuh bahwa peningkatan produksi dapat diupayakan melalui usaha intensifikasi dan ekstensifikasi guna memenuhi kebutuhan pangan, bahan baku industri dan kebutuhan lainnya. Kedua usaha dimaksud telah lama digalakkan, namun peningkatan produksi belum dapat dinikmati oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat akibat pertambahan penduduk yang tidak seimbang dengan kenaikan produksi pertanian. Di lain pihak luas lahan garapan juga semakin terbatas, sehingga lahirlah petani kecil yang berlahan sempit dengan lokasi garapan yang terpencar mengakibatkan aplikasi teknologi terbatas.
Petani berlahan sempit merasakan pentingnya penggunaan waktu dalam berusahatani. Oleh karena itu sekarang ini sangat ditekankan pada ii peningkatan produksi per satuan luas. Hal ini sudah dikembangkan dengan baik khususnya daerah-daerah beriklim sedang.
Secara teori, kemungkinan produksi tinggi dapat dicapai dengan menerapkan tiga pendekatan tersebut yaitu secara terus menerus menanam tanaman yang berproduksi tinggi pada lahan yang tersedia terutama adanya fenomena makin sempitnya pemilikan lahan oleh petani.
Karena itu petani berupaya bagaimana caranya mengusahakan lahannya yang sempit seefisien mungkin dengan berbagai jenis tanaman dalam pola yang tepat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan keluarganya.
Dengan demikian usaha peningkatan produksi pertanian per satuan luas dan waktu perlu mendapat perhatian. Sedang menurut Neal C. Stoskopt mengartikan multiple cropping adalah pertumbuhan dua jenis tanaman atau lebih pada sebidang lahan yang sama dalam waktu satu tahun. Sistem tersebut sudah tidak asing lagi bagi kita karena sudah lama dikenal oleh petani secara tradisional di Indonesia. Pada lahan kering, tegalan, dan pekarangan diusahakan pertumbuhan tanaman dan pola tanam yang sesuai pada suatu lahan merupakan interaksi antara tanah, iklim, tanaman dan pengelolaannya.In agriculture, multiple cropping or multicropping is the practice of sequentially growing two or more crops in the same piece of land during one growing season instead of just one crop.
It can take the form of double-cropping, in which a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested, or relay cropping, in which the second crop is started amidst the first crop before it has been harvested. A related practice, companion plantingis sometimes used in gardening and intensive cultivation of vegetables and fruits.
Mixed cropping is found in many agricultural traditions. In the Garhwal Himalaya of India, a practice called baranaja involves sowing 12 or more crops on the same plot, including various types of beans, grains, and millets, and harvesting them at different times.
What is Multiple Cropping?
In the cultivation of rice, multiple cropping requires effective irrigation, especially in areas with a dry season. Rain that falls during the wet season permits the cultivation of rice during that period, but during the other half of the year, water cannot be channeled into the rice fields without an irrigation system.
The Green Revolution in Asia led to the development of high-yield varieties of rice, which required a substantially shorter growing season of days, as opposed to traditional varieties, which needed to days. Due to this, multiple cropping became more prevalent in Asian countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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This agriculture article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.Provisioning services, such as the production of food, feed, and fiber, have always been the main focus of agriculture.
Since the s, intensive cropping systems based on the cultivation of a single crop or a single cultivar, in simplified rotations or monocultures, and relying on extensive use of agrochemical inputs have been preferred to more diverse, self-sustaining cropping systems, regardless of the environmental consequences.
However, there is increasing evidence that such intensive agroecosystems have led to a decline in biodiversity as well as threatening the environment and have damaged a number of ecosystem services such as the biogeochemical nutrient cycles and the regulation of climate and water quality. Consequently, the current challenge facing agriculture is to ensure the future of food production while reducing the use of inputs and limiting environmental impacts and the loss of biodiversity.
Here, we review examples of multiple cropping systems that aim to use biotic interactions to reduce chemical inputs and provide more ecosystem services than just provisioning. Our main findings are the identification of underlying ecological processes and management strategies related to the provision of pairs of ecosystem services namely food production and a regulation service.
We also found gaps between ecological knowledge and the constraints of agricultural practices in taking account of the interactions and possible trade-offs between multiple ecosystem services as well as socioeconomic constraints.
We present guidelines for the design of multiple cropping systems combining ecological, agricultural, and genetic concepts and approaches. Over the recent decades, agriculture has focused increasingly on the delivery of provisioning services such as food, fiber, and fuel, paying little attention to other important ecosystem services. This has led to intensive systems relying on the use of massive amounts of agrochemicals with a limited number of genetically improved species and cultivars, thus reducing the cultivated biodiversity.
There is increasing evidence worldwide that such intensive agroecosystems have harmful effects, leading to a decline in biodiversity and threatening the environment Tilman et al. The challenge of agriculture today is to contribute to current and future food security while preserving farmland biodiversity and limiting the adverse effects on the environment or even producing other ecosystem services. Significant changes in practices and policies are needed to support this shift from farming practices aiming to deliver a single provisioning service to practices that deliver a range of services Robertson and Swinton Plant diversity can provide a range of ecosystem services based on the type positive, neutral, or negative and degree of plant—plant interactions and on the local environmental and management conditions Tilman ; Diaz et al Attempts have been made to quantify the links between biodiversity and ecosystem services De Bello et al.
To move forward, we now need to understand and formalize this relationship which is not straightforward Mace et al. The delivery of ecosystem services depends largely on the interaction between biodiversity and local environmental conditions, which affect ecosystem functioning, and on socioeconomic conditions which determine the ecosystem services that are targeted and their target values.
The main challenge for the transition toward a more sustainable agriculture is to determine the plant diversity and associated management practices that could deliver a set of targeted services in given environmental and socioeconomic conditions.
Multiple cropping systems can produce crops at the same time as providing several ecosystem functions in the same space. Although biodiversity in agroecosystems can be based on a mixture of ligneous and herbaceous species, with life spans varying from a few weeks to several decades, this paper focuses on cropping systems that are based on annual herbaceous plants, which are grown primarily to produce grain cereals, legumes, oil crops, etc.
It addresses the main ecological processes underlying the functioning of multiple cropping systems based on annual crops and discusses how the selection of appropriate species, the spatiotemporal arrangement, and the associated agricultural practices can ensure and enhance specific functions to provide the ecosystem services targeted.
It proposes a classification of multiple cropping systems based on their composition and spatiotemporal arrangement. It then analyzes the ecological processes and management strategies that are fundamental to the functioning of multiple cropping systems based on a literature review.
Finally, it suggests how agroecological engineering can link the ecosystem services targeted to multiple cropping systems to provide guidelines for future land management strategies and agricultural policies. Multiple cropping systems consist of growing two or more cultivars or species with a spatial and temporal association.
Agriculture for Impact
Many studies have classified these systems on the basis of their species composition, design, and management Andrews and Kassam ; Poveda et al. This paper focuses on plant diversity in fields and field margins in cropping systems based on annual and herbaceous plants Figs. The principal components of a crop field and its adjacent areas after Greaves and Marshall and Marshall and Moonen Cultivation of two or more crops in sequence one after another on the same field in a year is known as sequential cropping.
It is of three types, viz. Cultivation of two crops on the same field one after another in a year is called double cropping. Cultivation of three crops one after another on the same field in a year is called triple cropping. Cultivation of crop regrowth after harvest on the same field in a year is known as ratoon cropping. It is followed in Rice and Sorghum under irrigated conditions.
Cultivation of two or more crops together on the same field in a year is called intercropping. It is also known as associated cropping or simultaneous poly-culture. Raising two or more crops by mixing their seeds or without distinct row arrangement is known as mixed inter-cropping, also called mixed cropping.
Raising two or more crops together but in separate rows is called row inter cropping. Raising two or more crops together in a field but in different distinct strips is known as strip infer cropping. Raising two or more crops in a field in a year in such a way that the second crop is planted before the harvest of first crop is called relay inter cropping.
In relay inter cropping; there is some overlapping period of two crops. Yearly sequence of crops on a farm and its interaction with farm resources is called cropping system. Raising one crop alone in pure stand is known as sole cropping; also called solid planting.
Repetitive growing of the same sole crop on the same field in a year is called monoculture. Growing crops in combination with animals such as dairy, poultry, piggery etc.Ethiopian orthodox fasting dates 2020
Number of crops grown on the same field in a year multiplied by hundred is called cropping index. Suppression of plant growth of one species by another species due to liberation of biologically active substance from the root or shoot is called allelopathy. Chemical substances which are liberated in allelopathy and inhibit the growth of another species growing together are known as allelochemicals. The main objective of crop improvement for multiple cropping systems is to increase the total yield of the system over monocultures.
What are criteria which should be kept in mind while selecting crop species for multiple cropping system? Following points should be given due importance white selecting crop species for multiple cropping system:. If one is shallow rooted, the other should be deep rooted so that both can absorb nutrients from different layers of soil.
In which crops erect genotypes give higher yield at closer spacing than spreading types? In some pulse crops such as green gram, black gram, soybean and cowpea, erect genotypes give higher yield than spreading types at closer spacings. What types of Sorghum and cereal cultivars are expected to give better yield at higher plant densities? In sorghum and cereals, cultivars with low tillering capacity are expected to give higher yields at higher plant densities.
What type of maize cultivars are expected to give higher yield at low plant densities? In maize, cultivars with prolific bearing capacity are expected to give higher yields at low plant densities.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center? A lady introduce her husband's name with saying by which can stop or move train what is that name. Give points yo advocate thst biology is linked with physics chemistry mathsmatics geography.
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Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Needs a Topic. We need you to answer this question! If you know the answer to this question, please register to join our limited beta program and start the conversation right now! Related Questions Asked in Farm Crops What is the difference between double cropping and multiple cropping?
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Arturo A. Asked in Agriculture, Farm Crops What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming method? By multiple cropping farmers grow different crops on same piece of land. It is an another way of increasing the productivity of the land. Farmers make use of more pestiscides, insecticides and chemical fertilizers. Jagadisg Timsina has written: 'Contribution of cropping systems program research and extension to the rural poor' -- subject s : Case studies, Multiple cropping.
Asked in Climatology and Climate Changes How can climate affected mixed cropping system? Climate affects all cropping systems, but in a mixed cropping system, when the climate is not optimal there is a chance for greater loss.
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Asked in Image and Graphic Editing In images what does cropping do? Cropping changes the size of your picture by clipping parts off. Asked in Agriculture What is continuous cropping?Learn something new every day More Info Multiple cropping is growing more than one kind of crop in the same area. This can be done in a number of different ways. There is relay cropping and double cropping.
Relay cropping is starting one crop among another crop that has matured. Double cropping is another form of multiple cropping where one crop is started after the growing season for the previous crop has ended. This agricultural technique normally is used to help maintain nutrient levels in the soil. Multiple cropping is very useful for a number of reasons.
Both relay and double cropping are good for replacing nutrients in the soil that one type of plant might have used heavily. There are some plants that need a large amount of nitrogen to grow, for example. These plants use up the nitrogen stores in the soil, so another kind of plant that puts nitrogen in the soil is planted in the off season. Legumes are a well-known nitrogen fixing plant. This agricultural cropping technique is not only beneficial because it produces more than one crop out of the same soil in a year, but each of the crops can help one another; different kinds of plants put different nutrients in the soil, and some may provide protection against harmful plants as well.
More nutrient-rich soil may yield better crops as well. Relay cropping is also beneficial because it can help cut planting costs down, as the second crop also benefits from the moisture the first has amassed in the soil. Although there are many benefits to multiple cropping, there are also some complications.
When growing more than one crop in the same soil, a great deal of research must be done. The growing seasons generally need to be planned correctly, and the right types of crops must be mixed. The rotating crops should bring some diversity and unique benefit to the rest of the crops without hurting one another's growing cycle. When growing more than one crop in the same soil, more nutrients as well as water normally will be needed.
Having crops year long can also make it more difficult to weed, as many modern weeding tools are typically too invasive to use between growing crops. It may also be difficult to switch to a different planting technique if crops are constantly growing. Taking a break for a season may help solve this problem.Microcar 50cc
This kind of cropping, however, may help a farmer to get more from a limited amount of land. It can help balance the nutrients and suppress weeds.
For many farmers, these benefits are more than enough to justify the disadvantages of multiple cropping. Whether you farm a large area of land or plant a small vegetable garden in your backyard, crop rotations will save space and keep your plants growing healthy and strong.
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